Justification is the doctrine that God pardons, accepts, and declares a sinner to be "just" on the basis of Christ's righteousness (Rom 3:24-26; 4:25; 5:15-21) which results in God's peace (Rom 5:1), His Spirit (Rom 8:4), and salvation. Justification is by grace through faith in Jesus Christ apart from all works and merit of the sinner (cf. Rom 1:18-3:28).
- Justification by Faith, by Mark Seifrid (SBTS)
- "Justification According to Paul" (Part 1, Part 2) (Audio), by Peter Stuhlmacher
- Of Justification (MP3), by Gordon H. Clark
- Riches of Divine Grace: Justification (MP3), by S. Lewis Johnson
- The Doctrine of Justification (MP3), by Thomas Schreiner
- Adam, Christ, and Justification ( Part I, Part II, Part III, Part IV, Part V) (mp3), By John Piper
- Justification and the Diminishing Work of Christ, by John Piper (MP3), Crossway lecture at ETS (Nov 15, 2007)
- Interview on Justification (MP3), Mike Reeves with John Piper
- On Justification by Faith Alone and Future Justification (YouTube), by Douglas Wilson
The act of justification
Justification is a legal act, wherein God deems the sinner righteous on the basis of Christ's righteousness. Unlike Sanctification, Justification is not a process, but is a one-time act, complete and definitive.
The word justification is not always used in the same sense. Some even speak of a fourfold justification as a justification from eternity, a justification from the resurrection, a justification in final judgment – as these are all true.
God's act of justification may be seen to involve a double imputation. On the one hand, the sin and guilt of the believer are imputed to Christ. On the other hand, the righteousness of Christ is imputed to the believer, whereby he is declared righteous.
See main page: Double imputation
Forgiveness and adoption
Justification is seen in two parts: (1) The sinner is forgiven on the basis of Christ's righteousness. The pardon does not merely cover sins already committed – but reaches to all sins. (2) The sinner is adopted as a child of God. God places them within his household, giving them all the rights of heirs and children (Rom 8:17, 1 Peter 1:4).
The instrumental cause of justification: Faith
The ??????? ??????? debate
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- Q. 33. What is justification?
A. Justification is an act of God's free grace, wherein he pardoneth all our sins, and accepteth us as righteous in his sight, only for the righteousness of Christ imputed to us, and received by faith alone. Westminster Shorter Catechism Question 33
- "The relationship of entailment between A [faith] and B [works] may be any of several kinds. A entails B if A and B are identical; If A then B is a valid inference by the law of identity. By causation, A entails B if A is a necessary and sufficient condition of B: If A then B. A. Therefore B” is a valid inference by modus ponens. By inclusion, A entails B if all A are B, even if not all B are A: All A are B. C is A. Therefore C is B is a valid inference by modus ponens. [With regard to faith and works, what matters] is whether the entailment is that of identity, cause, or inclusion. The first equates faith and works and destroys the whole Biblical teaching of justification by faith alone apart from the works of the law (Romans 3:28). The third subsumes works under faith and likewise destroys sola fide. Only the second maintains the Biblical distinction between faith and works and the Biblical doctrine that works are the necessary consequence of faith and so upholds the Biblical teaching of justification by faith alone apart from the works of the law." Calvin Beisner, Norman Shepherd and the Faith that Justifies, Knox Theological Seminary Chapel, October 22, 2002 
- Faith Alone: The Evangelical Doctrine of Justification, by R.C. Sproul, Baker, 1999 (ISBN 080105849X)
- The God Who Justifies, by James White (ISBN 0764222880)
- Justification: What's at Stake in the Current Debates, ed. by Mark Husbands & Daniel Treier, IVP, 2004 (ISBN 0830827811)
- The Justification Reader, by Thomas C. Oden, Eerdmans, 2002 (ISBN 0802839665)
- Reflections on salvation and justification in the New Testament, by D.A. Carson (JETS)
- Justification by Faith is the Answer: What is the Question? (pdf), by Stephen Westerholm
- Long Before Luther: Jesus and the Doctrine of Justification, by John MacArthur
- Justification: Forensic or Moral?, by Francis Turretin
- The Doctrine of Justification (PDF), by James Buchanan - An Outline of its History in the Church and of its Exposition from Scripture
The Faithfulness of Jesus Christ in Romans and Galatians (PDF), by Douglas A. Campbell
Justification, The Future Become Present, by George Eldon Ladd
Justification in Galatians, by Douglas J. Moo (starts on page 160)