The term paraenesis or parenesis, derived from the Greek ?????????? means "exhortation, advise, counsel?" (cf. ?Acts 27:9?, ?22?). As applied to a written work, the Oxford English Dictionary defines it as "a hortatory composition.?" In modern usage it denotes material characterized by ethical instruction and exhortation.^[1]^


  1. ? The Unifying Theme of the Epistle of James, by D. Edmond Hiebert (Professor of New Testament, Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary, Fresno, CA, 1955-1975) in Bibliotheca Sacra 135 (July 1978) 221-31.