Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (April 22, 1724 – February 12, 1804) was a German philosopher and scientist (astrophysics, mathematics, geography, anthropology) from East Prussia, generally regarded as one of Western society's and modern Europe's most influential thinkers and the last major philosopher of the Enlightenment.


Kant moved beyond both empiricism and rationalism by expounding a Transcendental philosophy. Unlike epistemology which asks, "How do we know?" and "What do we know?", transcendental philosophy asks, "What are the grounds and conditions for the very possibility of knowledge?"

"For philosophy of religion Kant raises complex questions about 'experience'. Can we separate what we think that we experience from how our minds order and interpret that experience?"^[1]^


Further reading

  • T. K. Seung, Kant: A Guide for the Perplexed. Continuum, 2007.
  • Roger Scruton, Kant: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, 2001.
  • Paul Guyer, Kant. Routledge Philosophers. Routledge, 2006.
  • Paul Guyer, The Cambridge Companion to Kant. Cambridge University Press, 1992.


  1. ? Anthony Thiselton, A Concise Encyclopedia of the Philosophy of Religion, p. 157.

Selected online works