Calvary is the name for the place where Jesus was crucified. It was probably a small hill just outside the walls of ancient Jerusalem. According to church tradition, it was within the area now occupied by The Church of the Holy Sepulchre.^[ _citation\ needed_]^

The biblical name for Calvary is Golgotha, which is derived from the Aramaic word gulgulta. Matthew 27:33, Mark 15:22, and John 19:17 give its meaning as "place of the skull." When Saint Jerome translated these verses into Latin, he used the Latin word for skull, calvaria, which is the origin of the English word Calvary.

The location of Calvary was identified by Empress Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, in the early fourth century. It is near the Holy Tomb.

The first churches built at the site were eventually destroyed in wars. When the Crusaders gained control of Jerusalem in the eleventh century, they constructed the present Church of the Holy Sepulcher, which covers both the Tomb and the place of the crucifixion.