"The doctrine of the Virgin Birth of Jesus holds that Jesus’ birth was the result of a miraculous conception whereby the Virgin Mary conceived a baby in her womb by the power of the Holy Spirit, without a human father. Christ’s miraculous birth tells us much about his nature. That He was born of woman demonstrates that He was indeed human and became one of us. Christ’s humanity, however, was not precisely the same as our own. We are born with original sin, Christ was not. The Virgin Birth also relates to the deity of Christ. While it is certainly possible for Deity to enter the world in a manner other than a virgin birth, the miracle of his birth points to Christ’s divinity. The announcement of the angel Gabriel to Mary underscores this point. When he told Mary she would have a son, Mary was perplexed: “How can this be, since I do not know a man?” (Luke 1:34). Gabriel’s answer to Mary is of decisive significance for our understanding of the Virgin Birth: “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Highest will overshadow you; therefore, also, that Holy One who is to be born will be called the Son of God” (Luke 1:35). Moments later the angel added, “For with God nothing will be impossible” (Luke 1:37). Aside from artificial insemination, which is a modern, non-miraculous variation on conception, nothing is more regular or commonplace in nature than the normal causal relationship for the conception of a baby. For a woman to become pregnant who has not had sexual intercourse with a man is not only biologically extraordinary, it is clearly against the laws of nature. But Mary’s child was not generated by Mary, herself. The “father” of the baby is the Holy Spirit. The language of the Spirit’s coming upon Mary and “overshadowing” her echoes the descriptive account of the Holy Spirit’s work in the original creation of the world. It reveals that this baby will be a special creation with His father being God Himself." R.C. Sproul (1998-02-01). Essential Truths of the Christian Faith (Kindle Locations 1581-1597). Tyndale House Publishers, Inc.. Kindle Edition.
- The Virgin Birth (Vimeo), by Michael Heiser
- Matthew 1:18, 22-25
- Luke 1:26-38
- Galatians 4:4
- Use of Isaiah 7:14
"It is more likely that the event of the virgin birth influenced Matthew's understanding of Isa. 7:14 than the reverse." - John Frame 
Early Church Fathers
Ignatius of Antioch
First Apology, ch. 33 [ANF 1:174]; Dialogue with Trypho, chs. 43 [ANF 1:216] and 66 [ANF 1:231]
Against Heresies 21.4 [ANF 1:452].
Against Celsus 1.34–35 [ANF 4:410–11].
- The Virgin Birth of Christ, by J. Gresham Machen
- The Virgin Birth: A Mystery to be Cried Aloud, by John Hartog
- The Birth of Jesus: Hype or History?, by Mark D. Roberts
- The Virgin Will Conceive: Typology in Isaiah and Fulfillment in Matthew, The Use of Isaiah 7:14 in Matthew 1:18-23, by James M. Hamilton Jr.
- Virgin Birth of Jesus, by John Frame
- Date of the Nativity and the Chronology of Jesus' Life, by Paul L. Maier
- The Rationale and Significance of the Virgin Birth, by A. N. S. Lane
- Is the “Virgin Birth” of Jesus Grounded in Paganism?, by Wayne Jackson
- The Virgin Birth, by Norman Geisler
- Why I Believe in the Virgin Birth
- Why I Deny the Virgin Birth of Jesus, by Daniel Florien