The churches of Galatia were founded by Paul himself (Acts 16:6; Gal. 1:8; 4:13, 19). They seem to have been composed mainly of converts from paganism (4:8), but partly also of Jewish converts, who probably, under the influence of Jewish teachers, sought to incorporate the rites of Judaism with Christianity.

It is debatable as to whether Paul wrote to the ethnic territory of Galatia or the Roman province in his Epistle to the Galatians.