The filioque clause or more appropriately the filioque controversy has to do with the Latin phrase, translated "and the son", which was accepted as an addition to the Nicene Creed by the Western churches and subsequently opposed by the Eastern churches:
The Nicene Creed as confirmed by the First Council of Constantinople in 381:
"We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father. Who with the Father and the Son is worshiped and glorified." The Nicene Creed with the "filioque" as accepted by the Western churches after the Synod of Toledo in Spain in 589:
"We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son. Who with the Father and the Son is worshiped and glorified." The theological dispute between the Eastern and Western Church is somewhat subtle, dealing with the persons of the Godhead and the nature of the Trinity. However, it was a continuing source of friction between the east and the west and was eventually elevated to become one of the "official" causes of the Great Schism in 1054 A.D.
- Chronology of the Filioque Controversy A one-page overview of the dispute, from 325 to 1453.
- Filioque at OrthodoxWiki
- Catholic Encyclopedia entry
- An extensive history of the filioque dispute, assembled by Gerard Seraphin The author makes an important reference to Johannes Grohe, who speaks of Eastern use of the filioque.
- Another excerpt from the Summa, "Whether the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Son?" The Scholastic perspective of Aquinas, precisely on the topic of this present article.